Every child's development is different. Developmental stages are the different stages of physical, cognitive and emotional growth and development experienced by each child. Even parenting can have an impact on a child's development during these stages. For that, let's know the emotional and social development of children according to their age.
According to dra. Hartamti Sumodiningrat, Psychologist, emotional development is closely related to the child's ability to understand and manage their emotions. Both positive and negative emotions in the right and healthy way. For example, in deciding behavior, solving problems, getting along and interacting with friends or adults. Basically, children who are able to manage their emotions well will be able to easily develop a positive self and become a confident person. Here are the stages of children's emotional and social development according to their age:
Emotional development of children aged 0-2 years
In this age range, your little one is generally able to show basic emotions such as anger, fear, curiosity, joy and affection. While the negative emotional development of children aged 0-2 years can be triggered by lack of affection, feeling unloved, being separated from the mother, and insecurity. Pressure such as being scolded, reproached, demanded and physically hurt will cause metabolic disorders, difficulty eating and sleeping, crying and tantrums. Too much affection from parents such as being overly protected or spoiled can also create negative emotional development including egocentric, lack of confidence, shyness, or children becoming timid.
Emotional development of children aged 2-5 years
Don't be surprised if your little one has started to express their opinions verbally. For example, refusing, arguing about games, desires that are not achieved can make your child angry to shout, bully, cry, kick, hit, slam objects. Unpleasant things experienced by little ones at this age can trigger fear and a sense of wanting to hide. The level of jealousy and love to seek the attention of parents is also increasing and wants to have toys from his friend.
Social Development in Infants to Toddlers
Social development can be honed early in children. So that when growing up the little one already has a good social development provision. Social development in children is closely related to the ability to understand, regulate, express emotions and personal feelings. Understand the feelings and needs of others, interact with others in a good and respectful manner. As well as building positive and beneficial relationships with others.
Well, the stages of social development in infants to toddlers are as follows:
2-3 months old: Able to distinguish objects and people, happy to be waited on
Age 4-5 months: likes to be held, can distinguish angry or friendly voices and likes to play with his saliva.
6-7 months old: Able to distinguish between close people and strangers. This is related to the mother or caregiver.
8-9 months of age: tries to imitate words, simple gestures from adults to attract attention.
12 months of age: the child can react to prohibitions such as the word no or don't and can play separately from the mother for a short time.
16-18 months of age: your child starts to be stubborn and does not want to follow requests or orders.
22-24 months: Your child begins to cooperate and learns to dress, eat, bathe, play and socialize with friends but is not yet able to share.
Age 3 years: Your child has copied a lot of attitudes and behaviors of friends such as speech, style and clothing. Even your child wants to win alone or be superior to their friends.
4-5 years old: your child is cooperative in group play activities, can control their emotions, can share with friends and take turns playing.
Nurturing Children's Emotional and Social Development
Honing children's emotional and social development is important in supporting their growth and well-being. There are several ways that moms and dads can help hone children's emotional and social development. Well, to hone your little one's emotional and social development, do the following ways, moms:
- Start training your little one's independence early.
- Accompany the child to play and chat.
- Train your child to recognize emotional expressions.
- Explain negative emotions.
- Instill values and ethics such as sharing, taking turns, queuing, courtesy and helping.
- Make a habit of reading stories to increase social knowledge and values for your child.
- Understand your child's character and limitations (introvert-extrovert).
Also, remember that each child develops at a different pace. Provide appropriate and loving support to help them grow and develop emotionally and socially. (Aq/MKK)